Rehabilitation of the visually impaired

Elemental rehabilitation for people with visual impairments is a learning process. One person is a specially trained teacher and the other being rehabilitated. Process requires an individual rehabilitation plan. 
The basic principles of rehabilitation work are following:
- Concreteness and exemplification
- Awareness and reflection 
- Activity and use of knowledge in practice
- Systematization
- Accessibility and helpfulness
- Anchoring and individualization. 
Involvement and new practices implementing into everyday life require the individual's personal interest in the process. Believing in your potential, effort and active participation in the learning process. In this work, differentiation and an individual approach to each client are of the utmost importance (Vassenin 2003).

The following factors must be considered in the rehabilitation process:

- Customer age; severity of disability;
- Age at which vision was lost (at birth, childhood, or old age);
- Whether the client is blind or completely blind; the causes and nature of the disability;
- The length of the visual impairment period (the shorter it is, the better the rehabilitation results can be);
- Other obstacles and defects associated with visual impairment that may render basic rehabilitation impossible;
- The client's mental and educational level;
- Personality model up to disability 
(Vassenin 2003).

The rehabilitation of people who have lost their vision later in life depends on their previous life experience as a seer. Also meaningful factors are the cause of the disability
- Its duration
- Whether vision disappeared quickly or slowly
- Whether partial or complete loss of vision is present 
(Vassenin 2003).

A visually impaired person is first exposed to medical rehabilitation because of reduced vision. This is the most psychologically difficult period for the recently sighted person. In addition to medical rehabilitation, psychological rehabilitation should be started. It is needed as the adaptation to new living conditions. A recent vision loss can easily lead to negative self-image. Both, for children with visual impairments, and for adults, early intervention is important.
Psychological rehabilitation for the visually impaired is the mastery of one's disability and its consequences. The right attitude towards oneself and one's possibilities, imagining further perspectives. Psychological rehabilitation begins in the inactive phase. The key here is to bring the client out of depression. The main cause of depression is a lack of orientation and mobility. Therefore, the first lesson should be an orientation instruction in the surroundings. Physical education must prevent the client from becoming helpless, which fosters  further independence, makes him or her ambitious, and builds confidence in his or her abilities. The client needs to be helped to get rid of the fear of the open space and support him / her in communicating with those around him / her. In communication, he should not be treated as a disabled person but as an equal partner 
(Vassenin 2003).

In addition to medical and psychological rehabilitation, it is important to include the recently sighted person in various adaptation courses that teach primary coping skills. Independent use of the white cane and orientation training must also be continued. It is important to involve the blind person in various activities in order to maintain the habit of acting independently. The blind person must also be involved in social relations and cultural life.

A personal rehabilitation plan that prioritizes actions to improve self-reliance, communication, and orientation is an important part of continuing rehabilitation.
Equally important is the role of the Blind Societies in activating and supporting the visually impaired. It is important that the support person, or a person with a similar disability, has the support of understanding and coping with visual impairment in everyday life.
Public rehabilitation services for the visually impaired.
Visually impaired people, like other people with disabilities, are also eligible for public rehabilitation services, and blind and partially sighted people can apply for these services on the same basis. The difference is due to the fact that disability-specific training and courses are a major part of the rehabilitation of visually impaired people. As a result, there are only a few institutions listed in the National Rehabilitation Institutions that deal with disability-specific services for the blind and partially sighted.

Like other people with disabilities, rehabilitation of people with visual impairments begins with the development of a personal rehabilitation plan. During the preparation of the plan, the client is informed about the existing services and an action plan is prepared for the client based on the client's needs and wishes. The rehabilitation plan sets out the goals of rehabilitation and defines activities to achieve them. The services provided in the rehabilitation plan should improve the client's communication skills and courage, support his / her social skills, improve daily coping skills and the use of aids, teach the use and adaptation of visual remains, taking into account living and working needs (Vassenin 2003).